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The University Journal

V ' . U .

fOL. I .

WASHINGTON, D. C., JANUARY 15-2, 1904.

No. 5.


The Teaching oi Pedagogy.




ew is

B. M

oo re

. P


. D.,

Dean o f Teachers' College.

The impetus to the study of Pedagogy, or the Science

and Art of Education, was given us by Germany, where

teaching has been a distinct profession since the close of


the Napoleonic wars. In 1707 Professor Francke, of

Halle, established a Teachers’ Seminary as an outgrowth

of several years’ trial in the training of teachers. Under

Francke’s influence more than a thousand public schools

were organized by Frederick William I. and placed under

teachers especially trained for their work.


the Great followed the policy of securing trained teachers

for elementary schools, and ordered that only persons

who had been professionally trained in a teachers’ sem­

inary should be eligible for appointment as teachers in el­

ementary schools supported by the Crown.

Frederick the Great died in 17S6, leaving unfinished

many plans for the improvement of the teaching profes­

sion ; but his spirit passed on to his successors, and ev­

ery decade lias seen some improvement in the German

educational system, some new requirement for those who

would enter upon the teaching profession.

With these

requirements have come fitting rewards, increased emol

uinents and influence, till now we find in Germany the

best equipped and most exclusive body of teachers in

the world, each of whom is a highly honored member of

the civil service.

The example of establishing pedagogical chairs and

teachers’ seminaries in German universities which has

given to Germanv such an incomparable teaching body,

has been followed by other countries. Since 1876 the

••Bell chairs of the Theory, History and Art of Educa

lion’’ have exisited in the Universities of St. Andrews

and Edinburgh.

More recently our own country has yielded to the

growing demand for professionally trained teachers, and

have established chairs and departments of pedagogy

and practice schools in connection with colleges and uni­


In 1873 Iowa University organized the first perma­

nent chair of pedagogy in connection with the chair ofgen

m l philosophy.

In 1879 the University of Michigan organized a de­

partment of the “ Science and Art of teaching.’’

In 1896 the U. S. Commissioner of Education report­

ed 192 colleges and universities having pedagogical

courses in ’94-’9S. Of these twenty-seven were main­

taining organized departments of pedagogy or teachers’


In report of 1901 the total number of universities

with teachers’ tabling courses is 371. These schools,

colleges and universities are confirming the belief of

modern educational thought and practice, that education­

al methods are based upon profound philosophy, the care­

ful study of which is essential to one who chooses to fol­

low the art ot teaching. It is now generally admitted that

a college graduate, though far superior in his attainments

to a high school or normal shod graduate, is as unfitted

for teaching as for practice of law or medicine without pro.

fessional training.

The progressive colleges are recognizing this, and pro­

vide pedagogical training for undergraduates. The Teach­

ers' College of Columbia University, the College of Edu­

cation at Chicago University, the School of Pedagogy of

New York University, School of Education of University

of Wisconsin, and the pedagogical departments of Har­

vard, University of Pennsylvania, Cornell, Syracuse,

Clark, and many of the Western Universities are recogni­

tion of the fact early embodied in the German education­

al system, that teaching, like all other professions, re­

quires special training.

Along with the duties of research and teaching, it

is a function of a university to provide society with


Until recently the university has left this

work to the normal schools whose curricula were already

too much crowded with academic work which ordinarily

lowers the standard as well as the usefulness of such a

school. It will always be necessary doubtles to offer ac­

ademic work in professional schools, but even in this ne­

cessity the professional spirit and method should be

maintained. The difference between professional study

and academic study has been well expressed by the

Committee of Fifteen: “ Professional study differs wide­

ly from academic study. In the one science is studied

in its relation to the studying mind; in the other in refer­

ence to its principles and applications. The aim of one

kind of study is power to apply; of the other, power to

present. The tendency of one is to bring the learner

into sympathy with the natural world, of the other with

the child world.





who learns that he may know and he who learns that he

may teach are studying in quite different mental atti­

tudes. One works for a knowledge of subject matter ;

the other that his knowledge may have due organization,

that he may bring to consciousness the apperceiving

ideas by means of which matter and method may be

suitably conjoined.’ ’ -